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Essential Factors or Elements of Communication Process

We know that, sender, receiver and a message are the basic elements of communication but the modern communication process includes many other elements. The elements which are essential for modern day communication are briefly discussed below:

1. Sender: The person who initiates or begins communication are called the sender or communicator. Sender is responsible for an intended message and encoding of the message. The sender therefore creates the message out of reaction developed in his mind.

2. Source: For communication, there must be a source of information. Although a sender is the immediate source of information, the ultimate source is stimuli which stimulates the sender to communicate.

3. Purpose: Communication never happens without any purpose or objective i,e. Communicator must have some intentions in his mind for which he is interested to communicate with one or more than one person.

4. Encoding: It is the process of putting thoughts and ideas of the message into symbolic form. It is also termed as 'mental wrapping' of the communication.

5. Message: When there is any interest or intention or idea in the mind of communicator, he makes encoding of such which is known as message. Thus a message is an encoded information which is communicated to the receiver or destination. If there is no message, there will be no communication.

 6. Medium: When the information or message has been encoded, a sender then selects media. Media means through which something is communicated to others. The media for oral communication are conversation, telephone calls , conference, meeting and others. Written communication uses media like newspapers, letters, e-mail, report, memo, chatting etc.

7. Decoding: It is the process through which receiver provides meaning to the message sent by the sender i. e., it helps the receiver to interpret or understand the sending message. Such decoding depends on the knowledge and perception of the receiver, past experience with the similar communicator, personal desire etc.
Barlton & Martin said-
"Decoding is the process of translating the symbols into the interpreted message"
8. Receiver: A receiver is the person or body who receives the message sent by the sender. The receiver is the destination that may be an individual or an organization. When the receiver receives the message, he decodes the message to create a meaningful idea from the message received. In case of two way communication, the receiver is required to  provide response to  the original sender of the message.

9. Feedback: It is the response of receiver to communicate to the original sender to create two way communication. Feedback ensures proper and mutual understanding between sender and receiver. It can be written,  spoken, signaled or given through other means. It requires the same step-by-step process as followed by the initial sender. There are need to follow some principles of feedback to make effective communication.

10. Noise: It is the distortion during the communication process which causes disturbance to the message sent. As a result, receiver can get a different message than what the sender has sent. Generally, environment noise is any element or activity that disturbs, confuses or makes the communication process more difficult.

The above mentioned elements can be show in the following way:

Factors of Communication Process
From the above discussion, We can come to this conclusion that to make effective communication, we need to follow all of above factors carefully. Thus communication process becomes fulfilled and communication becomes effective.