Elementary Steps for Drafting a Report

Making a report is a complicated task for which a reporter needs to collect all the staffs perfectly and timely. There are various reporters available for various purposes. Now how the report will be developed is a key question here. Here nine essential steps for drafting a report has been illustrated. The following steps are usually followed to write a report:

1.  Recognizing and Defining a Problem: One must first realize what the problem is. then the problem should be defined by answering the following 5W questions:
  1. What to study ?
  2. Why do we need such study ?
  3. When do we need such study ?
  4. Where do we need to investigate ?
  5. Who will be investigated ?
2. Defining the Purpose and Scope of the Study: What is the purpose of any study ? The reasons are discussed here. Then for the convenience of the study, the exact scope should also be determined. e.g. There is a labor-management problem for which an investigation is required.

Now, The purpose of such investigation on study would be to find out those factors which are raising conflict between labors and management. Whereas the scope would be the factory workers and respective authority of the factory.

3. Developing Hypothesis: For problem solving research, a researcher should develop hypothesis. A hypothesis is a tentative statement or explanation of some problems. For example: If the investigation is required to find out labor management problem then the hypothesis could be as follows:

H1: There is huge communication gap between management and labors.
H2: Management has always ignored job satisfaction of the labors.

4. Defining Terms Clearly: There may be various confusing terms related with study and require clear definition. So Definition of various confusing terms should be nicely presented. For example: Job satisfaction depends on person to person. So, what type of satisfaction is ignored by management should be defined properly.

The term "labor" is also a confusing one because there may be factory labor or general labor. So, which labors are facing problems should be defined correctly.

The term "time" is also confusing because it may be short term or long term or mid term. So how long the problem is existing between labor and management need proper definition.

By such definition any term remain clear on the report and relative person may understand properly if he keeps proper knowledge on this.

5. Determining the Audience: Report are prepared for readers. So, who are readers of the made report should be considered carefully before making the report. For example: Report for cost, volume and profit analysis is required for higher level of management. That type  of report is not for factory workers or outsiders of organization. Annual confidential report(ACR) is made for higher level management and not for workers. So, the knowledge and interest of readers should be considered while preparing any report. Consequently,  report should be reader oriented.

6. Collection of Data: To solve the problem,  We need some reasonable basis and therefore we need to collect data. Data are of two types:

(i) Primary Data: Data collected from research,  observation, experiment or survey. It is called as the primary source of data collection.

(ii) Secondary Data: Data collected from library which are treated as the secondary source of data collection.

7. Organizing, Analyzing and Interpreting the Data: Data which are collected is required to be arranged orderly. i.e. data should be arranged by some logical basis such as time, quantity and place. Analyzing involves examining the collected data for possible errors or omission and make proper editing for accuracy and completeness. For this purpose, A good reporter can use statistical and mathematical formula to get output logically.

After the data are organized and analyzed , now it is time to interpret the data in terms of logical meaning. More presentation of data does not make any sense. It requires proper evaluation of the data to derive any logical conclusion.

8. Making an Outline: Once the final pattern of the report has taken a shape in the writer's mind, He should prepare an outline to write the report. In this outline the problem is stated, the facts are recorded, they are briefly analyzed and the logical conclusion are made. An outline is not essential but it helps in writing a systematic and good report.

9. Writing the Final Report: The last stage is that of writing the report, The writer should be careful that the language of the report is simple and free from grammatical errors. The success or failure of all efforts made for the project under study depends on the nice presentation and preparation of the report. On this stage a qualified reporter tries to make all the essential features of a good report on his report. There are various advantages of report writing for an organization. The reporter must keep that word in mind.

At concluded point, Here Total nine steps has been illustrated to make a report. This elementary steps for drafting a report help a reporter to create an nice and proper report.